# GEAR RT¶

Warning

The radiative transfer schemes are still in development and are not useable at this moment. This page is currently a placeholder to document new features and requirements as the code grows.

## Compiling for GEAR RT¶

- To compile swift to be able to run with GEAR RT, you need to configure with
`--with-rt=GEAR_N`

where`N`

is the integer number of photon groups that you intend to use in your simulation. - You need to choose a Riemann solver for the RT equations. You can choose
between the
`GLF`

and`HLL`

solver. For the time being, I recommend sticking to the`GLF`

solver as the`HLL`

solver is more expensive, but seemingly offers no advantage, although this remains to be comfirmed in further testing. - GEAR RT is only compatible with the Meshless Finite Volume scheme. You’ll
need to compile using
`--with-hydro=gizmo-mfv`

, which will also require you to select a hydro Riemann solver, e.g`--with-riemann-solver=hllc`

.

## Compulsory Runtime Parameters¶

You need to provide the following runtime parameters in the yaml file:

```
GEARRT:
photon_groups_Hz: [3.288e15, 5.945e15, 13.157e15] # Photon frequency group bin edges in Hz
use_const_emission_rates: 1
star_emission_rates_LSol: [1., 1., 1., 1.] # stellar emission rates for each photon
# frequency bin in units of solar luminosity
f_reduce_c: 1e-3 # reduce the speed of light by this factor
CFL_condition: 0.9 # CFL condition for time integration
hydrogen_mass_fraction: 0.76 # total hydrogen (H + H+) mass fraction in the
# metal-free portion of the gas
stellar_spectrum_type: 0 # Which radiation spectrum to use. 0: constant. 1: blackbody spectrum.
```

The `photon_groups`

need to be `N - 1`

frequency edges (floats) to separate
the spectrum into `N`

groups. The outer limits of zero and infinity are
assumed.

At the moment, the only way to define star emission rates is to use constant
star emission rates that need to be provided in the parameter file. The star
emission rates need to be defined for each photon frequency group individually.
The first entry of the array is for the photon group with frequency
`[0, <first entry of photon_groups_Hz>)`

. Each star particle will then emit
the given energies, independent of their other properties.

Furthermore, even though the parameter `use_const_emission_rates`

is
intended to be optional in the future, **for now it needs to be set to 1.**, and
it requires you to manually set the stellar emission rates via the
`star_emission_rates_LSol`

parameter.

When solving the thermochemistry, we need to assume some form of stellar
spectrum so we may integrate over frequency bins to obtain average interaction
rates. The parameter `stellar_spectrum_type`

is hence required, and allows you
to select between:

- constant spectrum (
`stellar_spectrum_type: 0`

) - This choice additionally requires you to provide a maximal frequency for
the spectrum after which it’ll be cut off via the
`stellar_spectrum_const_max_frequency_Hz`

parameter

- This choice additionally requires you to provide a maximal frequency for
the spectrum after which it’ll be cut off via the

- constant spectrum (
- blackbody spectrum (
`stellar_spectrum_type: 1`

) - In this case, you need to provide also temperature of the blackbody via the
`stellar_spectrum_blackbody_temperature_K`

parameter.

- In this case, you need to provide also temperature of the blackbody via the

- blackbody spectrum (

## Initial Conditions¶

### Setting Up Initial Conditions for RT¶

Optionally, you may want to provide initial conditions for the radiation field
and/or the mass fraction of the ionizing species.
To do so, you need to add the following datasets to the `/PartType0`

particle
group:

```
PhotonEnergiesGroup1
PhotonEnergiesGroup2
.
.
.
PhotonEnergiesGroupN
PhotonFluxesGroup1
PhotonFluxesGroup2
.
.
.
PhotonFluxesGroupN
MassFractionHI
MassFractionHII
MassFractionHeI
MassFractionHeII
MassFractionHeIII
```

The `PhotonEnergies*`

datasets need to have dimension `nparts`

, while the
`PhotonFluxesGroup*`

datasets need to have dimension `(nparts, 3)`

, where
`nparts`

is the number of hydro particles. If you are writing initial
conditions where the fields have units, then `PhotonEnergies*`

are expected to
have units of energy \([M L^2 T^{-2}]\)), while the `PhotonFluxes*`

fields
should be in units of energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area, \([M
T^{-3}]\)).
The `MassFraction*`

datasets need to have dimension `nparts`

as well, and
are all unitless.

### Example using Python and `swiftsimio`

¶

If you are using swiftsimio to write
the initial condition files, then the easiest way of adding the RT initial
conditions is to first use the swiftsimio routines to write a file, then open it
up again and write the additional RT fields again using `h5py`

routines.

Here is an example:

```
from swiftsimio import Writer
import unyt
import numpy as np
import h5py
# define unit system to use.
unitsystem = unyt.unit_systems.cgs_unit_system
# number of photon groups
nPhotonGroups = 4
# filename of ICs to be generated
outputfilename = "my_rt_ICs.hdf5"
# open a swiftsimio.Writer object
w = Writer(...)
# do your IC setup for gas, gravity etc now
# ...
# write the IC file without doing anything RT related.
w.write(outputfilename)
# Now open file back up again and add RT data.
F = h5py.File(outputfilename, "r+")
header = F["Header"]
nparts = header.attrs["NumPart_ThisFile"][0]
parts = F["/PartType0"]
# Create initial photon energies and fluxes. You can leave them unitless,
# the units have already been written down with w.write(). In this case,
# it's in cgs.
for grp in range(nPhotonGroups):
dsetname = "PhotonEnergiesGroup{0:d}".format(grp + 1)
energydata = np.ones((nparts), dtype=np.float32) * some_value_you_want
parts.create_dataset(dsetname, data=energydata)
dsetname = "PhotonFluxesGroup{0:d}".format(grp + 1)
fluxdata = np.zeros((nparts, 3), dtype=np.float32) * some_value_you_want
parts.create_dataset(dsetname, data=fluxdata)
# Create initial ionization species mass fractions.
HIdata = np.ones((nparts), dtype=np.float32) * 0.4
parts.create_dataset("MassFractionHI", data=HIdata)
HIIdata = np.ones((nparts), dtype=np.float32) * 0.1
parts.create_dataset("MassFractionHII", data=HIIdata)
HeIdata = np.ones((nparts), dtype=np.float32) * 0.3
parts.create_dataset("MassFractionHeI", data=HeIdata)
HeIIdata = np.ones((nparts), dtype=np.float32) * 0.15
parts.create_dataset("MassFractionHeII", data=HeIIdata)
HeIIIdata = np.ones((nparts), dtype=np.float32) * 0.05
parts.create_dataset("MassFractionHeIII", data=HeIIIdata)
# close up, and we're done!
F.close()
```

### Generate Ionization Mass Fractions Using SWIFT¶

Warning

Using SWIFT to generate initial ionization mass fractions will overwrite the mass fractions that have been read in from the initial conditions.

Optionally, you can use SWIFT to generate the initial mass fractions of the ionizing species. To set the initial mass fractions of all particles to the same value, use the following parameters in the yaml parameter file:

```
set_initial_ionization_mass_fractions: 1 # (Optional) manually overwrite initial mass fractions
# (using the values you set below)
mass_fraction_HI: 0.76 # set initial HI mass fractions to this value
mass_fraction_HII: 0. # set initial HII mass fractions to this value
mass_fraction_HeI: 0.24 # set initial HeI mass fractions to this value
mass_fraction_HeII: 0. # set initial HeII mass fractions to this value
mass_fraction_HeIII: 0. # set initial HeIII mass fractions to this value
```

Alternatively, you can make SWIFT compute the initial ionization mass fractions for you assuming ionization equilibrium, following Katz, et al. 1996 by setting

```
set_equilibrium_initial_ionization_mass_fractions: 1 # (Optional) set the initial ionization fractions
# depending on gas temperature assuming ionization
# equilibrium.
hydrogen_mass_fraction: 0.76 # total hydrogen (H + H+) mass fraction in the
# metal-free portion of the gas
```

The `hydrogen_mass_fraction`

(which is a compulsory argument in any case) will
determine the hydrogen and helium mass fractions, while SWIFT will determine the
equilibrium ionizations.