.. Neutrinos
Willem Elbers, 7 April 2021
.. _neutrinos:
Neutrino implementation
=======================
SWIFT can also accurately model the effects of massive neutrinos in
cosmological simulations. At the background level, massive neutrinos
and other relativistic species can be included by specifying their
number and masses in the cosmology section of the parameter file
(see :ref:`Parameters_cosmology`).
At the perturbation level, neutrinos can be included as a separate particle
species (``PartType6``). To facilitate this, SWIFT implements the
:math:`\delta f` method for shot noise suppression (`Elbers et al. 2020
`_). The method
works by statistically weighting the particles during the simulation,
with weights computed from the Liouville equation using current and
initial momenta. The method can be activated by specifying
``Neutrino:use_delta_f`` in the parameter file.
The implementation of the :math:`\delta f` method in SWIFT assumes a
specific method for generating the initial neutrino momenta (see below).
This makes it possible to reproduce the initial momentum when it is
needed without increasing the memory footprint of the neutrino particles.
If perturbed initial conditions are not needed, the initial momenta can
be generated internally by specifying ``Neutrino:generate_ics`` in the
parameter file. This will assign ``PartType6`` particles to each
neutrino mass specified in the cosmology and generate new velocities
based on the homogeneous (unperturbed) Fermi-Dirac distribution. In
this case, placeholder neutrino particles should be provided in the
initial conditions with arbitrary masses and velocities, distributed
uniformly in the box. Placeholders can be spawned with the python
script ``tools/spawn_neutrinos.py``.
Relativistic Drift
------------------
At high redshift, neutrino particles move faster than the speed of light
if the usual Newtonian expressions are used. To rectify this, SWIFT
implements a relativistic drift correction. In this convention, the
internal velocity variable (see theory/Cosmology) is
:math:`v^i=a^2u^i=a^2\dot{x}^i\gamma^{-1}`, where :math:`u^i` is the
spatial part of the 4-velocity, :math:`a` the scale factor, and
:math:`x^i` a comoving position vector. The conversion factor to the
coordinate 3-velocity is :math:`\gamma=ac/\sqrt{a^2c^2+v^2}`. This
factor is applied to the neutrino particles throughout the simulation.
Generating Fermi-Dirac momenta
------------------------------
The implementation of the :math:`\delta f` method in SWIFT assumes that
neutrinos were initially assigned a Fermi-Dirac momentum using the following
method. Each particle has a fixed 64-bit unsigned integer :math:`\ell` given
by the particle ID [#f1]_ (plus an optional seed: ``Neutrino:neutrino_seed``).
This number is transformed into a floating point number :math:`u\in(0,1)`,
using the following pseudo-code based on splitmix64:
.. code-block:: none
m = l + 0x9E3779B97f4A7C15
m = (m ^ (m >> 30)) * 0xBF58476D1CE4E5B9;
m = (m ^ (m >> 27)) * 0x94D049BB133111EB;
m = m ^ (m >> 31);
u = (m + 0.5) / (UINT64_MAX + 1)
This is subsequently transformed into a Fermi-Dirac momentum
:math:`q = F^{-1}(u)` by evaluating the quantile function. To generate
neutrino particle initial conditions with perturbations, one first generates
momenta from the unperturbed Fermi-Dirac distribution using the above method
and then applies perturbations in any suitable manner.
When using the :math:`\delta f` method, SWIFT also assumes that ``PartType6``
particles are assigned to all :math:`N_\nu` massive species present in the
cosmology, such that the particle with fixed integer :math:`\ell` corresponds
to species :math:`i = \ell\; \% \;N_\nu\in[0,N_\nu-1]`.
The sampled Fermi-Dirac speeds and neutrino masses are written into the
snapshot files as ``SampledSpeeds`` and ``MicroscopicMasses``.
Mesh Neutrinos
--------------
There are two additional implementations of neutrino physics. The first
is an option to only apply the delta-f weighting scheme on the mesh. In
this case, particle neutrinos participate like dark matter in the remaining
gravity calculations. This mode can be activated with
``Neutrino:use_delta_f_mesh_only``.
The second option is an implementation of the linear response method,
once again on the mesh only, which requires a separate data file with
transfer functions. Example settings in the paramter file for this mode
are:
.. code:: YAML
Neutrino:
use_linear_response: 1 # Option to use the linear response method
transfer_functions_filename: perturb.hdf5 # For linear response neutrinos, path to an hdf5 file with transfer functions, redshifts, and wavenumbers
dataset_redshifts: Redshifts # For linear response neutrinos, name of the dataset with the redshifts (a vector of length N_z)
dataset_wavenumbers: Wavenumbers # For linear response neutrinos, name of the dataset with the wavenumbers (a vector of length N_k)
dataset_delta_cdm: Functions/d_cdm # For linear response neutrinos, name of the dataset with the cdm density transfer function (N_z x N_k)
dataset_delta_baryon: Functions/d_b # For linear response neutrinos, name of the dataset with the baryon density transfer function (N_z x N_k)
dataset_delta_nu: Functions/d_ncdm[0] # For linear response neutrinos, name of the dataset with the neutrino density transfer function (N_z x N_k)
fixed_bg_density: 1 # For linear response neutrinos, whether to use a fixed present-day background density
In this example, the code reads an HDF5 file "perturb.hdf5" with transfer
functions. The file must contain a vector with redshifts of length :math:`N_z`,
a vector with wavenumbers :math:`N_k`, and three arrays with dimensions
:math:`N_z \times N_k` of density transfer functions for cdm, baryons, and
neutrinos respectively. It is recommended to store the units of the wavenumbers
as an attribute at "Units/Unit length in cgs (U_L)". The ``fixed_bg_density``
flag determines whether the linear response scales as :math:`\Omega_\nu(a)`
or the present-day value :math:`\Omega_{\nu,0}`, either of which may be
appropriate depending on the particle initial conditions. An HDF5 file
can be generated using classy with the script ``tools/create_perturb_file.py``.
The linear response mode currently only supports degenerate mass models
with a single neutrino transfer function.
Background Neutrinos Only
-------------------------
It is also possible to run without neutrino perturbations, even when
specifying neutrinos in the background cosmology. This mode can be
activated with ``Neutrino:use_model_none``.
.. [#f1] Currently, it is not guaranteed that a particle ID is unique.