# GEAR model¶

## Pressure Floor¶

In order to avoid the artificial collapse of unresolved clumps, a minimum in pressure is applied to the particles. This additional pressure can be seen as the pressure due to unresolved hydrodynamics turbulence and is given by:

$P_\textrm{Jeans} = \frac{\rho}{\gamma} \left( \frac{4}{\pi} G h^2 \rho N_\textrm{Jeans}^{2/3} - \sigma^2 \right)$

where $$\rho$$ is the density, $$\gamma$$ the adiabatic index, $$G$$ is the gravitational constant, $$h$$ the smoothing length, $$N_\textrm{Jeans}$$ is the number of particle required in order to resolve a clump and $$\sigma$$ the velocity dispersion.

This must be directly implemented into the hydro schemes, therefore only a subset of schemes (Gadget-2 and Pressure-Energy) are currently implemented. In order to implement it, you need equation 12 in Hopkins 2013:

$m_i \frac{\mathrm{d}v_i}{\mathrm{d}t} = - \sum_j x_i x_j \left[ \frac{P_i}{y_i^2} f_{ij} \nabla_i W_{ij}(h_i) + \frac{P_j}{y_j^2} f_{ji} \nabla_j W_{ji}(h_j) \right]$

and simply replace the $$P_i, P_j$$ by the pressure with the floor. Here the $$x, y$$ are simple weights that should never have the pressure floor included even if they are related to the pressure (e.g. pressure-entropy).

## Cooling: Grackle¶

Grackle is a chemistry and cooling library presented in B. Smith et al. 2016 (do not forget to cite if used). Four different modes are available: equilibrium, 6 species network (H, H$$^+$$, e$$^-$$, He, He$$^+$$ and He$$^{++}$$), 9 species network (adds H$$^-$$, H$$_2$$ and H$$_2^+$$) and 12 species (adds D, D$$^+$$ and HD). Following the same order, the swift cooling options are grackle, grackle1, grackle2 and grackle3 (the numbers correspond to the value of primordial_chemistry in Grackle). It also includes some self-shielding methods and UV background. In order to use the Grackle cooling, you will need to provide an HDF5 table computed by Cloudy.

When starting a simulation without providing the different fractions, the code supposes an equilibrium and computes the fractions automatically.

In order to compile SWIFT with Grackle, you need to provide the options with-grackle and with-chemistry.

You will need a Grackle version later than 3.1. To compile it, run the following commands from the root directory of Grackle: ./configure; cd src/clib. Update the variables LOCAL_HDF5_INSTALL and MACH_INSTALL_PREFIX in the file src/clib/Make.mach.linux-gnu. Finish with make machine-linux-gnu; make && make install. If you encounter any problem, you can look at the Grackle documentation

You can now provide the path given for MACH_INSTALL_PREFIX to with-grackle.